ISTQB - V Model

V model basically used when product development will be done in sequence and in V shape which have been define in below. We will understand in details about below aspects. V model is known as verification and validation model. We can say the V model is second name of waterfall model. After the development phase, testing phase will be taken place in V model. Thus, each development life cycle will be attached with the testing phase.

In this model, each level will be started after the completion of previous level. Here we need to plan development phase and testing phase parallel. It shows that one side verification procedure have been followed in coding phase and same side validation procedure have been followed in testing phase.
There are defined Verification levels is defined as below.

1. Requirement analysis :
Here in requirement analysis, all the requirement have been identified and understood as per need of clients. Many communication meetings will be required with client for clearing each requirement in application or project. This is how we can get deep idea about the client’s expectation. Sometimes it may happen the client is not clear about how they want the final result of the product so acceptance testing document is prepared with this meetings too. Thus, in future if any functionality will be changed then we should have proper documents to notify the older discussion with clients.

That is the main reason we have define requirement analysis with Acceptance testing.

2. System Design:
In system design level, design of the application will build in details with all aspects of requirements and needs of the client. How the main implementation will be taken placed that is the basic discussion point in this phase. All technical requirements needs to be verify here and the modules creation sequence is discussed here whether the module will be a software or hardware.
Verification procedure in this phase is reviews of the design. Validation procedure of this phase is creating the test plan and test cases with test metrics.

3. Architecture Design:
With respect of high level design, architecture of application will be created. Each modules have been decided to build with respect of dependencies, relationships, priorities. 
Main thing of architecture design phase is, develop the database tables and technical frameworks.
Verification procedure of this phase is to verify all the designs deeply and accordingly architecture of application will be developed. Validation procedure of this phase is to develop the database table and integrate it with the coding and generate the integrated test cases.

4. Model Design:
In Model design, each individual model of the application or product have been designed.
All software components have been reviewed and planned in this phase.
Which kind of methods, classes and data types will be used in model that is discussed in this phase?
Verification procedure of this phase is to review the coding and validation procedure of this phase is to generate the functional test cases.
Now let’s move to the Validation phase,

5. Unit testing :
In unit testing, developer team will do the testing of their codes and low level test cases have been executed.
Unit testing is came under white box testing roof. Here code testing have been done and if written code will give the result as expected then test case will mark as pass otherwise mark as fail.

6. Integration Testing:
In integration testing, module integration will be tested. All the test cases which have been created in architecture phase, that have bene executed in this phase.
Dependencies of modules have been verified here and if test case will not passed and result will not displayed as per expected then a bug needs to be logged.

7. System Testing:
In this testing all system will be covered to test as functional, non-functional and system test cases have been executed here and bug for fail test cases should be logged properly.
The test closure activity will be taken place here and all the critical bug needs to be resolved in this phase. Even tradability and risk Metrix have been validated in this phase. All the update about the application or product have been reviewed and completed in this phase.

8. User Acceptance Testing:
Business requirement of an application have been validated in this phase. Testing will be done on the client environment and all business requirement needs to be fulfilled here.
Even non-functional testing can be done for an application or website, like stress or load testing.
When we can use V Model:

All requirement should be clear to use this model
When project size is small and technology will not updated frequently.
Acceptance of the product should be clear for using this model.

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